Enter ANTONY, CLEOPATRA, her Ladies, the Train, with Eunuchs fanning her. Look, where they Exeunt MARK ANTONY and CLEOPATRA with their train. Free site book and epub digitized and proofread by Project Gutenberg. Antony and Cleopatra tells the story of a romance between two powerful lovers: Cleopatra, the queen of Egypt, and Mark Antony, who rules the Roman Empire.
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Plutarch treatedalso in certain scenes oi Antony and Cleopatra^ and the remodelling of the play in more dramatic form ; and though this evidence is by no means. Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the public and we . CLEOPATRA, queen of Egypt. MÆCENAS,. OCTAVIA, sister to Cæsar, and wife to Antony. AGRIPPA,. CHARMIAN, Lattendants on Cleopatra.
Satisfied, Cleopatra commends the servant on his graphic descriptions III,iii. Meanwhile in Italy, after some negotiations, Pompey agrees to peace and invites his past enemies on board his ship for a banquet.
Many side discussions ensue concerning the battles, the questionable future of Antony and Octavia, and persistent doubts about a united triumvirate. Lepidus drinks too much and the servants mock him while Menas, a pirate unhappy with the treaty, pulls Pompey aside and offers to cut the throats of Antony, Lepidus, and Caesar. Pompey refuses to con- spire with Menas, but Pompey admits that he would have commended him had Menas done the deed without his knowl- edge II, vii.
No sooner does the couple arrive in Athens than they learn of new trouble, stirred this time by Octavius Caesar. Caesar has broken the treaty and declared war on Pompey. Antony is enraged when he learns of this deceit and demands that Lepidus be deposed and his revenue divided between Caesar and Antony. Meanwhile, Octavia returns to Rome. Antony decides to fight Caesar at sea, which Cleopatra supports, but others advise against such a strategy.
Antony loses the battle in disgrace. He offers his treasure to them as compensation. Softened by her heartfelt plea, Antony forgives her III,xi.
Through the messages of his ambassador, Antony requests that Caesar allow him to live in Egypt with Cleopatra. If not, Antony asks that Ceasar grant him leave to carry on a private life in Athens.
Cleopatra also surrenders to Caesar and asks that the crown of the Ptolemies Egypt be reserved for her heirs. Caesar sends his officer Thidias to win Cleopatra. Humiliated, Thidias scurries back to Caesar. Antony accuses Cleopatra of being a faithless strumpet, but she swears her loyalty and he, once more, forgives her.
Antony declares a last night of revelry before the final battle, where he has prom- ised to fight Caesar to the death III,xiii. Antony prepares for battle and bids a tearful farewell to his loyal servants IV,ii. While in battle camp he learns that the loyal Enobarbus has deserted him at last. He forgives Enobarbus and sends his belongings after him along with a number of additional gifts IV, v.
Antony returns to Alexandria and a proud Cleopatra IV,viii. Antony leaves Alexandria to observe the battle, and then returns, enraged. He has been betrayed! Irreconcilable, he accuses Cleopatra of betrayal and vows to kill her IV,xii. Fearing for her life, Cleopatra locks herself high in her monument. He orders Eros to make one final act as his ser- vant and kill him. Reluctantly, Eros draws his sword, but asks Antony to turn away as he does this hateful deed. At the last moment, Eros kills himself instead.
Antony impales himself on his own sword but fails to strike a fatal wound. Guards swarm into the room and halt his further attempts at suicide. Fearing capture by Octavius, Cleopatra refuses to leave the monument. Instead, she bids her ladies to lift Antony up to her. He dies in her arms. Overcome by the loss of her lover, Cleopatra vows to take her own life IV,xv. An Egyptian servant arrives asking Caesar what will become of Cleopatra.
Caesar assures the servant that he will treat Cleopatra gently and with dignity.
But she fears the servant is untrustworthy and attempts to kill herself with a dagger. She invites into her chambers a trusted countryman who arrives with a basket of figs in which he has concealed several poisonous asps.
As Cleopatra bids farewell to her ladies, Iras and Charmian, Iras sudden- ly falls dead at her feet. Worried that her attendant will meet Antony in death before she does, Cleopatra quickly clutch- es an asp to her breast. She applies another to her arm and soon dies from their bites. Charmian applies the last asp to herself and dies.
He orders her burial next to Antony in honorable graves accompanied with great ceremony V,ii. They should become familiar with the famous tales of Julius Caesar, Marcus Antony, and Queen Cleopatra, which were well known to Elizabethans. Students should become acquainted with the topographical world in 44 b. An understanding of the effects of iambic pentameter and purposeful switches to prose to imply character, class, subtext, and action is essential for higher levels of literary appreciation and understanding.
Following is a list of exercises and assignments that will support this manner of text and content exploration. Any of the exercises may be expanded or adapted as time and facilities allow. One large map of the Roman Empire and its surrounding territories in approximately 41 b.
To be used as a game board. Alternately, if more familiar geography is preferred, use a map of the United States with Canada, and Mexico as the surrounding territories and the U. Five large game pieces to represent five leaders and 60 smaller game pieces to represent five armies of 12 pieces each. Either chess or checkers pieces, coins or toy soldiers are recommended as game pieces. Strategy Cards made by writing individual strategies on index cards suggestions for strategy statements below.
Small pieces of scrap paper and pens or pencils to write Declarations. If numbers do not work out evenly, assign a sixth person to the group to act as the mediator who requests Declarations and hands out Strategy Cards.
Each ruler receives an army, represented by 12 game pieces. Divide Power and Territories amongst five Rulers. Round One: Round Two: Round Three: Leaders with the most game pieces are announced as winners. To start the game, the Triumvirate divides the Roman Empire into three territories of sub-rule.
To play each round: Use the Strategy Card to influence your Declaration and strategy during the round. The contents of the notes are not to be known until all three rounds are complete.
Once declarations are made there is no turning back. Examples of Declaration Statements given below. Armies placed in war will either win or lose soldiers. Those that stay at home and are not attacked, lose nothing, but gain nothing.
If you do not combine forces and armies are equal, the round is a draw. Declarations are to be made as announcements of battle, retreat, wishes for peace, and for forming an ally with another Ruler. As any good storyteller does, he took artistic license with these tales and made his own adaptations of the original. So, too, could the students. This can be a lengthy and creative exercise where students invest in the possibilities and methods of storytelling. Tragedy—a serious play typically dealing with the problems of a central character, or protagonist, leading to an unhappy or disastrous ending brought on by fate and a tragic flaw in the main character 2.
Hubris—wanton insolence or arrogance resulting from excessive pride or from passion 3.
Foreshadowing—to indicate or suggest beforehand 4. Catharsis—the purifying of the emotions or relieving of emotional tensions 6. Plot—the arrangement of dramatic incidents 2. Characters—the people represented in the play 3.
Thought or Theme—the ideas explored 4. Language—the dialogue and poetry 5. Music—the choral odes specific to Greek plays 6. They can explore transportation, styles of dress, methods of war as well as uniforms and arms. This provides students with clear visual images of the characters and their lifestyles. Likewise, they will begin to understand how long it took to move armies from place to place. Students can place this chart next to the script as they read the play and keep track of the loyalties of the minor characters.
As minor characters betray their leaders, retreat or die, students can either cross out or move them to other columns, keeping track of power shifts. For example: Can students form their own opinions of these interpretations? If so, how do they interpret them? Discuss interpretations of scenes and char- acter motivations. Have them rehearse, practicing voice, inflection, and emotion. They can prepare an introduction to the scene, set the stage, and then read the scene aloud with their practiced interpretations while the rest of the class attempts to summarize the scene in writing.
The class can then discuss perceived interpretations gained through these presentations. For example, in Act IV, scene xv, Cleopatra is in her monument with her ladies. She asks them to help lift the dying Antony up to her so that she will not have to leave the safety of her monument.
Assign this same scene to a few different individuals or groups and compare inter- pretations and solutions to its staging challenge. Elizabethan theater practitioners had to be quite cre- ative using inexpensive devices to create magic and action on stage. This activity reinforces the live action and stage sounds of drama, as well as introduces students to simplified staging devices as a means of bringing a play to life.
Assign small groups to specific scenes from the play. Provide each group with a cassette recorder. Have students practice reading the scenes aloud, playing specific characters and providing sound effects. Have students record the scenes as a mini radio play. Groups then play their scenes in sequence. Give each group one or two dis- covery questions to guide their exploratory work on the scene. Then have each group read the scene aloud and dis- cuss their interpretations.
Antony and Cleopatra.pdf
ACT I 1. Why are Antony and Cleopatra attracted to each other? Why does Shakespeare include the warnings of a soothsayer? How does this add to the plot of the traditional tragedy? Why is he so conflicted? Is this an unusual personali- ty trait?
Is it a weakness? Explain the loyalties of each member of the triumvirate. Which of the three leaders appears to be the most powerful at this point in the play? How does the power shift? Cleopatra and Charmian compare methods of keeping a man. In which scene does Cleopatra win such a battle? When does Antony win? How does the status of each person shift when they are together? What are the unspoken thoughts of Antony and Cleopatra? How do the spoken words vary from the unspoken? What evidence points towards these subtextual truths?
Cleopatra is a woman of many tactics.
What tactics does she use to get what she wants from Antony, her servants, and later from Caesar? Are her dramatic mood swings emotional outbursts? Or are they manipulative strategies as well? How does it change throughout the play? How does life in Egypt differ from life in Rome? Why do these differences attract Antony to Egypt? How trustworthy is Cleopatra? Should Antony trust her as an ally?
Is she truthful? To whom? Antony and Cleopatra are quite public with their private affair. How do the Romans look at such public behavior?
How would contemporary U. Would the reactions be the same in other cultures? How are messengers and followers treated differently by Caesar, Antony, and Cleopatra? Who seems to be the most benev- olent, hostile, or respectful in such relationships?
What does this say about each character? Octavius Caesar is spoken of many times before he actually makes an appearance. What impressions of Caesar are creat- ed before he arrives in the play? Does he fulfill those impressions? ACT II 1. Why does Pompey believe that he can win a war against the triumvirate? What part does Cleopatra play in raising his expectations for victory? In Act II, scene ii, Antony and Caesar have an argument filled with accusations and statements of self-defense.
Who is to blame for the unrest in Italy and the war against Caesar? Who wins the argument? Caesar and Antony reconcile their differences. How sincere is this reconciliation? Who plans the marriage between Octavia and Antony? Caesar or Agrippa? How does he regard her beauty and charms? Is he fearful of her power over Antony? A soothsayer appears for a second time in the play. What are his warnings and what references are made to the supernat- ural as proof of his predictions?
Which mood most accurately portrays her true personality? Pompey and the triumvirate finally meet face to face. How does each leader feel about the outcome of the meet- ing? The Soothsayer warned Antony that his angel would be overpowered if he stays in Rome.
Who seems to overshadow Antony? During the banquet scene, Lepidus gets drunk and has to be carried out. Is it purely for comic relief or to show a weakness in Lepidus?
What role does Enobarbus play in these festivities? In the midst of the banquet and drunken revelry, at least one person is conspiring to overthrow the others. Who is this person and does he have the power to carry out these ambitions? By the end of Act II, there appears to be a united front among all parties. Are they actually united? Does the calm, unit- ed surface hide turbulence beneath?
If so, who causes this turbulence? Many servants and subordinates express their opinions about the treaty. What are their thoughts and predictions for the future? How accurate are their perceptions? Why does Shakespeare create this dichotomy? What opinions do fellow soldiers have of Lepidus? How are they altered after his drunken behavior at the banquet?
Antony and Cleopatra.pdf
How does Octavia feel about it? Will Antony be any more loyal to Octavia than he was to Fulvia? How sincere is the farewell of Caesar, Antony, and Octavia? Who appears to be the most sincere? Who might be disguis- ing ulterior motives? Is Cleopatra truly jealous of Octavia and her marriage to Antony, or is she simply concerned that Octavia will win his full attention?
Does he take cues from Cleopatra on appro- priate answers to her questions? If so, what signs does she give him? What kind of relationship do Antony and Octavia have? Is Antony sincerely trying to make the marriage work? To what extent is he honestly upset at the treatment of his sister? What other motive might he have for appearing upset? Is it her passion for Antony that takes her to his side?
Her need to show her superiority over Octavia? Or does she have other motives? How sound are his strategies? How would the Elizabethans have staged the battle scenes in Actium?
What staging devices might have been used to dramatize the actions of scenes viii, vix, and x? How is Antony noble in defeat? Does he deserve the praise he receives from his peers and followers? But Asinius and Trebellius advised Antony to the contrary, and, as chance would have it, a dire suspicion fell upon him that he was wronged as a husband by Dolabella.
They loathed his ill-timed drunkenness, his heavy expenditures, his debauches with women, his spending the days in sleep or in wandering about with crazed and aching head, the nights in revelry or at shows, or in attendance at the nuptial feasts of mimes and jesters. Sergius the mime also was one of those who had the greatest influence with him, and Cytheris, a woman from the same school of acting, a great favourite, whom he took about with him in a litter on his visits to the cities, and her litter was followed by as many attendants as that of his mother.
For this reason, too, when Caesar came back, he pardoned Dolabella, and, on being chosen consul for the third time, selected Lepidus as his colleague, and not Antony. And he says himself that this was the reason why he did not go with Caesar on his African campaign, since he got no recompense for his private successes.
However, it would seem that Caesar cured him of most of his prodigality and folly by not allowing his errors to pass unnoticed. She was a woman who took no thought for spinning or housekeeping, nor would she deign to bear sway over a man of private station, but she wished to rule a ruler and command a commander. Therefore Cleopatra was indebted to Fulvia for teaching Antony to endure a woman's sway, since she took him over quite tamed, and schooled at the outset to obey women.
For instance, when many were going out to meet Caesar after his victory in Spain, Antony himself went forth. He took the dress of a slave and came by night to his house, and on saying that he was the bearer of a letter to Fulvia from Antony, was admitted to her presence, his face all muffled.
For as he journeyed through Italy he had Antony in the same car with himself, but behind him Brutus Albinus, and Octavius, b his niece's son, who was afterwards named Caesar and ruled Rome for a very long time. It was his purpose also to resign his own office and make it over to Dolabella; and he proposed this to the senate.
But since Antony vehemently opposed the plan, heaped much abuse upon Dolabella, and received as much in return, for the time being Caesar desisted, being ashamed of their unseemly conduct. Caesar therefore yielded, and gave up Dolabella, who was much annoyed. For we are told that when a certain man was accusing both of them to him, he said he had no fear of those fat and long-haired fellows, but rather of those pale and thin ones, indicating Brutus and Cassius, by whom he was to be conspired against and slain.
Now, the runners to and fro are many noble youths and many of the magistrates, anointed with oil, and with leathern thongs they strike in sport those whom they meet. When Caesar with affected modesty declined the diadem, the people were delighted and clapped their hands.
The wreath, which had been hung upon one of his statues, certain tribunes of the people tore down. These men the people greeted with favouring cries and clapping of hands; but Caesar deprived them of their office.
The rest were for making him one of them, but Trebonius opposed it. For, he said, while people were going out to meet Caesar on his return from Spain, Antony had travelled with him and shared his tent, and he had sounded him quietly and cautiously; Antony had understood him, he said, but had not responded to his advances; Antony had not, however, reported the conversation to Caesar, but had faithfully kept silence about it.
But the conspirators were afraid of Antony's strength, and of the consideration which his office gave him, and therefore appointed some of their number to look out for him, in order that, when Caesar entered the senate-chamber and their deed was about to be done, they might engage Antony outside in conversation about some urgent matter and detain him there. At once, then, Antony put on the dress of a slave and hid himself. But when he learned that the conspirators were laying hands upon nobody, but were merely assembled together on the Capitol, he persuaded them to come down by giving them his son as hostage; moreover, he himself entertained Cassius, and Lepidus entertained Brutus.
Now, it happened that when Caesar's body was carried forth for burial, Antony pronounced the customary eulogy over it in the forum. He also brought some men back from exile, and released others from prison, as though Caesar had decided upon all this. Wherefore the Romans in mockery called all such men Charonitae; 20 for when put to the test they appealed to the memoranda of the dead.
He had been staying at Apollonia when Caesar was assassinated. The young man greeted Antony as his father's friend, and reminded him of the moneys deposited with him. And when the young man refused to listen to this, and demanded the moneys, Antony kept saying and doing many things to insult him. For instance, he opposed him in his canvass for a tribuneship, and when he attempted to dedicate a golden chair in honour of his father by adoption, according to a decree of the senate, Antony threatened to hale him off to prison unless he stopped trying to win popular favour.
Afterwards, as he lay asleep that night, Antony had a strange vision. He thought, namely, that his right hand was smitten by a thunder-bolt.
Caesar tried to make explanations, but did not succeed in convincing Antony. So once more their hatred was in full career, and both were hurrying about Italy trying to bring into the field by large pay that part of the soldiery which was already settled in their colonies, and to get the start of one another in winning the support of that part which was still arrayed in arms. These men were consuls at that time, and in an engagement with Antony near the city of Mutina, at which Octavius Caesar was present and fought on their side, they conquered the enemy, but fell themselves.
But it was his nature to rise to his highest level when in an evil plight, and he was most like a good and true man when he was unfortunate. For it is a common trait in those whom some difficulty has laid low, that they perceive plainly what virtue is, but all have not the strength amid reverses to imitate what they admire and shun what they hate, nay, some are then even more prone to yield to their habits through weakness, and to let their judgment be shattered. Bark was also eaten, we are told, and animals never tasted before were food for them as they crossed the Alps.
His hair was unkempt, and his beard had been allowed to grow long ever since his defeat, and putting on a dark garment he came up to the camp of Lepidus and began to speak. But the soldiers felt all the more pity for Antony, and held a secret parley with him, sending Laelius and Clodius to him in the garb of women of the camp. These urged Antony to attack their camp boldly; for there were many, they said, who would welcome him and kill Lepidus, if he wished.
He himself was first to plunge in, and made his way towards the opposite bank, seeing already that many of the soldiers of Lepidus were stretching out their hands to him and tearing down their ramparts. After entering the camp and making himself master of everything, he treated Lepidus with the greatest kindness. Indeed, he embraced him and called him father; and though in fact he was in full control himself, still he did not cease to preserve for Lepidus the name and the honour of imperator.
Thus raised again to great power, he crossed the Alps and led into Italy with him seventeen legions of infantry and ten thousand horse. So the three men came together on a small island in the midst of a river, 23 and there held conference for three days.
All other matters were easily agreed upon, and they divided up the whole empire among themselves as though it were an ancestral inheritance; but the dispute about the men who were to be put to death gave them the greatest trouble.
Each demanded the privilege of slaying his enemies and saving his kinsmen. Lepidus also was permitted to put to death Paulus his brother; although some say that Lepidus gave up Paulus to Antony and Caesar, who demanded his death. For by this barter of murder for murder they put to death those whom they surrendered just as truly as those whom they seized; but their injustice was greater towards their friends, whom they slew without so much as hating them. She, when the executioners were at hand and trying to force their way into her chamber, stood in the doorway, spread out her arms, and cried repeatedly: "Ye shall not slay Lucius Caesar unless ye first slay me, the mother of your imperator.
Men were distressed, therefore, to see the house closed for the most part against commanders, magistrates, and ambassadors, who were thrust with insolence from its doors, and filled instead with mimes, jugglers, and drunken flatterers, on whom were squandered the greater part of the moneys got in the most violent and cruel manner.
They shared the army also, and both led their forces into Macedonia against Brutus and Cassius, entrusting Rome to Lepidus. Cassius, at his own request and command, was killed by Pindar, one of his trusty freedmen; Cassius was not aware that Brutus was victorious. And as he stood beside the dead body of Brutus, Antony chided him a little for the death of his brother Caius, whom Brutus had executed in Macedonia to avenge Cicero, and declaring that Hortensius was more to blame than Brutus for his brother's murder, he ordered Hortensius to be slaughtered on his brother's tomb; but over Brutus he cast his own purple cloak, which was of great value, and ordered one of his own freedmen to see to the burial of the body.
And learning afterwards that this fellow had not burned the purple cloak with the body of Brutus, and had purloined much of what had been devoted to the burial, he put him to death.
Kings would often come to his doors, and wives of kings, vying with one another in their gifts and their beauty, would yield up their honour for his pleasure; and while at Rome Caesar was wearing himself out in civil strifes and wars, Antony himself was enjoying abundant peace and leisure, and was swept back by his passions into his wonted mode of life.
It was past all endurance that everything was devoted to these extravagances. For he took their property from well-born men and bestowed it on flatterers and scoundrels.
From many, too, who were actually alive, men got their property by asking him for it on the plea that the owners were dead. The house of a man of Magnesia he gave to a cook, who, as we are told, had won reputation by a single supper. Yet he was thought to exceed due bounds more in conferring favours than in inflicting punishments.
For a man might pay back his jests and insolence, and he delighted in being laughed at no less than in laughing at others. And this vitiated most of his undertakings. Such men would use their bold babbling over the cups to make their submissive yielding in matters of business seem to be the way, not of those who associate with a man merely to please him, but of those who are vanquished by superior wisdom.
And he was taken captive in this manner. As he was getting ready for the Parthian war, he sent to Cleopatra, ordering her to meet him in Cilicia in order to make answer to the charges made against her of raising and giving to Cassius much money for the war.
He therefore resorted to flattery and tried to induce the Egyptian to go to Cilicia "decked out in fine array" 27 as Homer would say , and not to be afraid of Antony, who was the most agreeable and humane of commanders. For Caesar and Pompey had known her when she was still a girl and inexperienced in affairs, but she was going to visit Antony at the very time when women have the most brilliant beauty and are at the acme of intellectual power.
Wondrous odours from countless incense-offerings diffused themselves along the river-banks. And a rumour spread on every hand that Venus was come to revel with Bacchus for the good of Asia. Antony sent, therefore, and invited her to supper; but she thought it meet that he should rather come to her.
He found there a preparation that beggared description, but was most amazed at the multitude of lights. For, as we are told, so many of these were let down and displayed on all sides at once, and they were arranged and ordered with so many inclinations and adjustments to each other in the form of rectangles and circles, that few sights were so beautiful or so worthy to be seen as this. Cleopatra observed in the jests of Antony much of the soldier and the common man, and adopted this manner also towards him, without restraint now, and boldly.
There, indulging in the sports and diversions of a young man of leisure, he squandered and spent upon pleasures that which Antiphon d calls the most costly outlay, namely, time.
The Editor's Notes:
But the cook burst out laughing and said: "The guests are not many, only about twelve; but everything that is set before them must be at perfection, and this an instant of time reduces. For it might happen that Antony would ask for supper immediately, and after a little while, perhaps, would postpone it and call for a cup of wine, or engage in conversation with some one.
After a little while, however, one of the slaves brought the beakers to him in a sack, and bade him put his seal upon it. And when Philotas protested and was afraid to take them, "You miserable man," said the fellow, "why hesitate? Don't you know that the giver is the son of Antony, and that he has the right to bestow so many golden vessels? She played at dice with him, drank with him, hunted with him, and watched him as he exercised himself in arms; and when by night he would station himself at the doors or windows of the common folk and scoff at those within, she would go with him on his round of mad follies, wearing the garb of a serving maiden.
However, the Alexandrians took delight in their graceful and cultivated way; they liked him, and said that he used the tragic mask with the Romans, but the comic mask with them.
One instance will suffice. He was fishing once, and had bad luck, and was vexed at it because Cleopatra was there to see. He therefore ordered his fishermen to dive down and secretly fasten to his hook some fish that had been previously caught, and pulled up two or three of them.
But the Egyptian saw through the trick, and pretending to admire her lover's skill, told her friends about it, and invited them to be spectators of it the following day. Antony thought he had caught something, and pulled it up, whereupon there was great laughter, as was natural, and Cleopatra said: "Imperator, hand over thy fishing-rod to the fishermen of Pharos and Canopus; thy sport is the hunting of cities, realms, and continents.Good-bye for a while.
Nay, do so; for, indeed, I have lost command, Therefore I pray you: In the common show-place, where they exercise. Sergius the mime also was one of those who had the greatest influence with him, and Cytheris, a woman from the same school of acting, a great favourite, whom he took about with him in a litter on his visits to the cities, and her litter was followed by as many attendants as that of his mother.
My lord approaches.
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